Christianity


Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion (they only believe in one god). It is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. These can be found in the New Testament in the Bible. People that believe in Christianity are called Christians (Greek). They believe that Jesus was born the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). His birth was prophesied many years before he was born, and can be found in the Old Testament. To Christians, Jesus Christ is a teacher and revealer of what the Christian God teaches. He is an example of how Christians should live. Christians consider him to be the saviour of all people, because he suffered, died, and was resurrected to allegedly save people from sin. Christians believe that Jesus ascended into heaven, and most Christian groups (denominations) believe that Jesus will return to Earth and judge everybody, both alive and dead, giving everlasting life to Christians. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news"), that is why the first four books of the New Testament are called the gospels.
Just like Judaism and Islam, Christianity is an Abrahamic religion. Christianity started out as a Jewish sect in the eastern Mediterranean. It quickly grew in number of believers and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion in the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, the rest of Europe mostly was Christianized. At that time, Christians were mostly a religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas and the rest of the world.
Christianity has been an important part of the shaping of Western civilization, at least since the 4th century. As of the early 21st century, Christianity has between 1.5 billion and 2.1 billion followers, which is about a quarter of all people of Earth.
Worship.
Worship is thought by most Christians to be a very important part of Christianity all through its history. Many Christian theologians have called humanity "homo adorans", which means "worshipping man," and so the worship of God is at the very center of what it means to be human. This would mean that because God created all humanity, then Christians should worship and give praise God.
Sacraments.
In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a religious symbol or often a rite which shows divine grace, blessing, or sanctity for the Christian who does it. Examples of sacraments would be Baptism and the Mass." The word is taken from the Latin word "sacramentum", which was used to translate the Greek word for "mystery".
The two most regularly used sacraments are Baptism and Eucharist (communion). But most Christians use seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Holy Orders, Reconciliation of a Penitent (confession), Anointing of the Sick, and Marriage. Some Christian denominations prefer to call them "ordinances".
Liturgical calendar.
Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Eastern Christians, and traditional Protestant groups center their worship around a liturgical calendar. Some events that are part of this calendar are the holy days, such as solemnities which honor an event in the life of Jesus or the saints, times of fasting such as Lent, and other events, such as memoria. Christian groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often keep some celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. A few churches do not even use a liturgical calendar.
Christian beliefs.
Even though Christians have many differences of beliefs and opinions, they share some beliefs that they believe are very important to their faith.
Creeds.
Creeds (from Latin "credo" meaning "I believe") are direct doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They started as baptismal formulas and were later became larger during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Protestants, and so on) accept the use of creeds, and often use at least one of the creeds given above. A smaller number of Protestants, notably Restorationists, a movement formed in the wake of the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century of the 19th century United States, oppose the use of creeds.
Jesus Christ.
The most basic part of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and Messiah (Christ). The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ ("māšiáħ") meaning "anointed one". The Greek translation ("Christos") is the source of the English word "Christ".
Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus was anointed by God as ruler and savior of all people. Christians also believe that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian belief of the Messiah is much different than the contemporary Jewish concept. The main Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God. Though this, they believe they are given salvation and the promise of eternal life.
There have been many theological disagreements over the nature of Jesus over the first centuries of Christian history. But Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man." Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pain and temptations of a mortal man, but he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and came back to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead," he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father" and will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and the final creation of the Kingdom of God.
From what the Gospels of Matthew and Luke say, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Only little of Jesus' childhood is written in the canonical Gospels, but infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. But the time of Jesus' adulthood the week before his death are written much about in the Gospels. Some of the Biblical writings of of Jesus' ministry are: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds.
Death and resurrection of Jesus.
Christians believe the the resurrection of Jesus to be the main part of their faith (see) and the most important event in human history, because it would show that that Jesus has power over death and have the authority to give people eternal life. Among Christian beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus are two main events of Christian doctrine and theology. From what the New Testament says, Jesus was crucified, died a physical death, was buried in a tomb, and came back from the dead three days later. The New Testament writes that several times Jesus appeared many times before his Twelve Apostles and disciples, and one time before "more than five hundred brethren at once," before Jesus' Ascension to heaven. Jesus' death and resurrection are remember by Christians in their worship services, and most commonly during Holy Week, which has Good Friday and Easter Sunday in the week.
Most every Christian church believe and teach the New Testament writing of the resurrection of Jesus. Some liberal Christians do not accept a that Jesus came back from the dead, as they believe it to be a good symbolic and spiritual myth. Arguments over the death and resurrection of Jesus are very common at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues. Paul the Apostle, an early Christian convert and missionary, wrote, "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless." The Unitarian church is one of the few denominations where the resurrection of Jesus is not taught.
Salvation.
Protestantism teaches that eternal salvation is a gift that is given to a person by God's grace. It is sometimes called "unmerited favor." This would mean that Salvation is God bringing humans into a right relationship with God through faith in Jesus Christ. It is the belief that one can be saved (rescued) from sin and forever death. Many Protestants believe in the "assurance of salvation"'that God can put confidence in a believer that he has has truly received salvation from Jesus Christ.
Catholicism teaches that in most cases someone must be a baptized a Catholic to be saved, it is sometimes possible for people to be saved who have not fully joined the Catholic Church. Catholics normally believe in the importance of works and sacraments in getting salvation. The Catholic Church teaches that faith is important, but it also believes that salvation also requires good works and piety, such as obedience to commands, taking the sacraments, going to church, doing penance and giving alms, saying prayers, and other things, to receive eternal life.
The formal study of theology of salvation is Soteriology.
Different denominations and traditions of Christianity believe in forms divine grace. Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy teach the complete importance of the free will to work together with grace. Reformed theology teaches the importance of grace by teaching that a person is completely incapable of self-redemption, but the grace of God overcomes even the unwilling heart. Arminianism believes in a synergistic view, while Lutheran and most other Protestant denominations teach justification by grace through faith alone.
Trinity.
Trinitarianism is the group of Christians who believe in the "Trinity". Almost all Christian denominations and Churches believe this. Nontrinitarianism is the beliefs systems that do not believe in the Trinity. Many different nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism or modalism, existed in early Christianity, leading to the disputes about Christology.
Scriptures.
Christianity uses the Bible, many canonical books in two parts, the Old Testament and the New Testament. It is believed by Christians that they were written by people who were inspired by the Holy Spirit, and therefore it is most often believe to be the word of God. There is some differences in Bible versions and editions throughout Christianity.
Afterlife and Eschaton.
Most Christians believe that humans beings will receive judgement from God and are given either eternal life or eternal damnation. This includes the "Last Judgment" as well as the belief of a judgement particular to the soul after death.
There are also some differences among Christians in this belief. For example, in Roman Catholicism, those who die in a state of grace, go into purgatory. Some churches who do not believe in particular judgment, for example Jehovahs Witnesses, believe that the soul sleeps.
Christians believe that at the second coming of Christ at the end of time, all who have died will be resurrected from the dead for the Last Judgment, when Jesus will establish the Kingdom of God. There is also the belief of Universal Reconciliation. That is the belief that all people will someday receive salvation, rejecting the concept that hell is forever. Christians who believe in this view are known as Universalists.
Types of Christianity.
People who call themselves Christians may show or live their faith in different ways. They may also believe different things. Through history the three main groups or "denominations" of Christianity have been the Orthodox, the Catholic and the Protestant churches. Not all Christians use these titles. Some believe Christianity is bigger and includes others. Some believe Christianity is smaller and does not include all these churches.
Disagreements.
Some of these groups could not agree on certain points about Christian teaching (called “doctrine”) or practice. The first split was in the 5th century after the Church Council of Ephesus. There council agreed Nestorianism was wrong; the Assyrian Church of the East did not agree and split from the rest. The argument was about the nature of Jesus. Should he be regarded as God and human in one combined nature, or in two separated natures? Most of the bishops, following the Pope (the Bishop of Rome), refused to stay in communion with any bishop who wouldn't say "two separated natures". This was also discussed at the Council of Chalcedon, about 50 years later. The Christians who did not agree with the decision of the Council to excommunicate them, became the Non-Chalcedonian Orthodox. The largest Non-Chalcedonian Churches are the Coptic Orthodox in Egypt, the Ethiopian Orthodox, the Armenian, and some Lebanese Orthodox Churches. In general, these churches are known as Oriental Orthodox Churches. Recent discussions between the Roman Catholic Pope John Paul II and the Coptic Orthodox Pope Shenouda III concluded that they believe many of the same things after all, even though the Coptic Church does not recognise the Pope of Rome as its leader.
The third split happened in the 11th century. It is called the Great Schism. It was mostly based on personal disagreements between the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople. The disagreements were made worse because the two cultures often did not understand one another. Also many Crusaders from Western Europe behaved badly. The Christians in Western Europe were led by the Bishop of Rome, known also as the Pope. They are called the Catholic Church. Most Christians in Eastern Europe, Russia, and the Middle East belong to the Orthodox Churches, led by the Bishops of other cities or areas.
In the 15th century the invention of the printing press made it easier for more people to read and study the Bible. This led many thinkers over the years to come up with new ideas and to break away from the Pope and his church. They started the Protestant or Reformed churches. Some Catholics and Orthodox do not consider Protestants to be fully Christian. The most important Protestant leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Later some of these groups disagreed amongst themselves, so that these denominations split again into smaller groups. The main Protestant denominations today are the Baptist, Lutheran, and Calvinist Presbyterian Churches. In England, a similar protest against the Pope, first political and later religious, led to the Church of England which has bishops and officially calls itself Reformed Catholic but is often referred to as Protestant. The Anglican communion of churches includes several churches called "Episcopal" or "Episcopalian", because they have bishops. Some Anglican Churches have a style of worship that is closer to the Protestant services, others worship more like Catholics, but none of them accept the Pope, or are accepted by him. In general, the Protestant denominations differ from the Catholic and Orthodox Churches in having given up some of the traditional sacraments, having no ordained priesthood, and not having the same fondness for Mary, the mother of Jesus, that the Catholic and Orthodox churches have.
Other differences.
Protestants differ from Catholic and Orthodox Christians in placing more importance on a person’s experience of first choosing to follow Jesus. Catholic and Orthodox Christians think that the ongoing growth in holiness that should take place over a person's lifetime is more important.
Most Christian worship has Scripture reading, talk about Scripture from a leader, singing, prayer together, and a small time for church work such as collecting money. Christians may meet in special buildings, also called churches, or outdoors, or at schools, or anywhere Christians feel they are needed.
The main worship service in Catholic Churches is the Mass and the main worship service in many Orthodox Churches is called the Divine Liturgy. In both of these Churches, along with the other parts of worship, the Eucharist or Communion is central. Here a priest by prayer asks God to change a small amount of bread and wine into what Catholics and Orthodox believe is Jesus's real body and blood, but without changing the accidents (appearance, taste, colour, etc.) of the bread and wine. Then the people each may receive a portion. Many Protestant churches have ceremonies more or less similar to the Mass, some every week, others a few times a year. Some Protestants believe Jesus is really present at the Communion service, and some believe the bread and wine are symbols to help them remember what Jesus did. Other Protestant churches do not have Communion at all.
Catholics have developed a short ceremony, Eucharistic Benediction, worshipping Jesus present in the Eucharist. They also may visit a church building to pray in the presence of the Eucharist, Eucharistic Adoration.
Orthodox and Catholic spirituality place importance on the use of human senses such as sight and on the use of beautiful things. Catholic spirituality often involves the use of statues and other artistic representations, candles, incense, and other physical items as reminders or aids to prayer. The Orthodox Churches also use candles, incense, bells, and icons, but not statues. Orthodox and Catholic worship also involves use of gestures, such as the Sign of the Cross, made by each person touching first the forehead, then chest, one shoulder, then the other shoulder. There is also bowing, kneeling, and prostration in Catholic and Orthodox worship.
Groups outside the three big groups of denominations.
There are other denominations that do not fit into the three largest categories. While some of these groups see themselves as Christian, many of the other Christian groups do not agree that they are. All of these groups began after 1800 AD. Most of them do not believe Jesus is God, or do not believe in the Trinity, or for other reasons do not believe what other Christians believe.
One denomination which is Protestant (but has some beliefs that are different from most Protestant denominations) is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
History.
Christianity has large history from the time of Jesus and his apostles to the present time. Christianity began in the 1st century AD as a Jewish sect but quickly spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Although it was originally persecuted under the Roman Empire, it became the state religion in the end. In the Middle Ages it spread into Northern Europe and Russia. During the Age of Exploration, Christianity expanded throughout the world, and is now the largest religion of the world.
The religion had schisms and theological disputes that had as result three main branches: the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and Protestant churches.
Demographics.
With an estimated number of Christians being somewhere around 1.5 billion to 2.1 billion, split into around 34,000 different denominations, Christianity is the world's largest religion. The Christian share of the world's population has been around 33% for the last hundred years. This has caused Christianity to spread throughout the world, mainly in Europe and North America. It is still the main religion of Europe, the Americas, the Philippines, and Southern Africa. However it is becoming smaller in some areas, some of them are; Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), Northern Europe (with Great Britain, Scandinavia and other places), France, Germany, the Canadian provinces of Ontario, British Columbia, and Quebec, the Western and Northern parts of the United States, and parts of Asia (especially the Middle East, South Korea, Taiwan and Macau).
In most countries in the developed world, the number of people going to church who claim to be Christians has been dropping over the last few decades. Some believe that this is only because many no longer use regular membership in places, for example churches, while others believe it is because people may be thinking that religion is no longer important.
Ecumenism.
Most churches have for a long time showed that they want to be tolerant with other belief systems, and in the 20th century Christian ecumenism advanced in two ways. One way was more cooperation between groups, such as the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of Protestants in 1910, the Justice, Peace and Creation Commission of the World Council of Churches started in 1948 by Protestant and Orthodox churches, and similar national councils, for example the National Council of Churches in Australia with Roman Catholics.
The other way was creating unions for different churches to join together. Congregationalist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches joined together in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada, and in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The Church of South India was formed in 1947 by the union of Anglican, Methodist, Congregationalist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches. And other such formations have been done by different Christian groups throughout the years.


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