Dutch language


Dutch language
Dutch is the language spoken in the Netherlands. In Dutch the language is called "Nederlands".
It is also spoken in the northern half of Belgium (Flanders), and it is called "Vlaams" (Flemish) there. They also speak it in Surinam. A form of Dutch called "Afrikaans" is spoken in South Africa and Namibia. About 22 million people speak the language worldwide. Dutch is related to English.
History.
Dutch is a Germanic language, so it is related to German. The Dutch of before 1170 is called "Old Dutch" (Oudnederlands). The dutch between 1170 and 1500 is called "Middle Dutch" (Middelnederlands), which is also called "Diets". That's why Dutch is called Dutch in English (Dutch is called "Nederlands" in Dutch). The oldest Dutch book known is "Wachtendonckse Psalmen" which was written in 900. The first Dutch writer we know by name is Hendrik van Veldeke, who was born around 1150.
Sounds.
The Dutch sounds are very different from English. The way Dutch is written also much more phonetic than English. In Dutch, you pronounce words how they are written, which isn't the case with English (example:In English you don't pronounce the "e" of the word "more").
Vowels.
The Dutch language has the following vowels.
Consonants.
The Dutch language has the following consonants.
Note: In words that end with "d", the D is pronounced like T
Open and Closed syllables.
The way of how vowels are pronounced, depends on the fact if the syllable is "open" or "closed". If a syllable is open, short written vowels are spoken as long ones. Short written vowels only are spoken short if the syllable is closed.
There are, however, exceptions to this rule as well. This can be seen in the word "meenemen". This word can be divided into three syllables: mee|ne|men. The e's in the first two syllables are long ones, but the last one is a stupid e.
The stupid e also occurs in the ending of verbs (usually -en).
Onvoltooid Tegenwoordige Tijd.
The most simple verb-time is the Onvoltooid Tegenwoordige Tijd (ott; present simple). The ott is used when something is occuring "now", or "regularly" (like: "Hij eet regelmatig" (He eat regularly)). Most verbs are conjugated (changed) in a regular form (these verbs are called "Regelmatige werkwoorden" (regular verbs)). The word stem of the verb is still there in all of the conjugations (changes). The correct way of doing this is
Note*: The stem of a verb is the infintive of the verb without the final "-en". In some verbs, the first syllable is open, and any vowel therefore is long. The stem changes to a written long vowel. So the stem of "lopen" becomes "loop". If the "-en" is then added to the stem (for example with wij), the written form becomes short again (but it still will be spoken as a long vowel).
Onvoltooid Verleden Tijd.
There are however words in which "'t Kofschip" is not so easy. This is for instance in the word "vrezen" (to fear). The stem of the verb is "vrees", so it seems that the verb is changed with a T. This is not true (it it changed with a D), because "vrezen" minus "-en" is "vrez". The Z is not in "'t Kofschip", so the verb is changed with a D.
Continuating verbs.
Actually, there are three types of continuous verbs in Dutch.
Examples.
Ik hou van je (I love you)


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