An insult is a description of someone that will offend them. It may or may not be true, but it is called "derogatory" language. Terms like foolish, stupid, idiot moron and grow a pair are insults, because they suggest that a person's mind is not quick or smart.
Insulting one's mother directly is a serious insult in many cultures.
Ritual insults are part of many cultures, mainly in sports and military training. They are also very common in jargons - for example, most references to newbies in net jargon are insults.
One should be very careful when using unfamiliar terms for others.
Usually to make the insulter feel like they are superior to the insulted because they feel inferior for some reason.

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