London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom, and also the largest city of United Kingdom. It is in the South-East of England, on the River Thames. It is also known as "Lunnainn" in Scottish, "Llundain" in Welsh and "Londain" in Irish.
In history, London is only the area of the City of London, but now people say London more generally to mean the whole city of Greater London.
People started living in the city 2,000 years ago, and today about 7.5 million people live there. This means it is the city with the most number of people in Europe. People in London come from many different countries, and speak more than 300 different languages. There are also many religions and cultures.
London is an important place for business, finance, and culture. It also has a big influence on world politics, entertainment, media, fashion, and art. It has many famous museums, churches, and popular places for tourists to visit.
The Romans built a city called "Londinium" on the River Thames in AD 43. The name "Londinium" (and then 'London') came from the Celtic language of the Ancient Britons. In the year 61 AD, Queen Boudica (a British Celtic queen) and her army destroyed the city. Boudica killed herself when Romans trapped her and the Romans then rebuilt London. London became an important trading city. After the Romans left Britain, no-one lived in the city for a long time because the Anglo-Saxons liked living in the countryside. In the 9th century, people started living there again. It became the largest city in England, but it did not become the capital city of England until the 12th century.
After the railways were built, London grew very big. Greater London has 33 London Boroughs and a mayor. The old City of London is only a square-mile in size but has its own Lord Mayor.
Another famous old part of Greater London is Westminster, which was always a different city from the City of London. Westminster has Westminster Abbey (a cathedral), The Palace of Westminster (the Houses of Parliament, with Big Ben), and 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives).
London also has a "partnership" agreement with Tokyo, Japan.

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